Category Archives: Probation and Parole


Ten Tips To Avoid Probate

When a person dies, their final personal, financial, and legal affairs must be resolved. In many instances, such matters are overseen by a legal process known as probate. California Probate courts are adjudicating bodies charged with the responsibility of carrying out duties like authenticating a deceased individual’s will and ensuring that said subject’s last wishes and duties are performed in accordance with the law.

Probate can, however, be a tedious and potentially complicated process that could take years to complete. Fortunately, individuals might prevent their families from having to experience probate by executing specific actions.

10 Tips To Avoid Probate

During probate, all of the decedent’s assets are subject to distribution and possibly taxation. That said, satisfying the deceased’s debts is also part of the probate process. Therefore, if said individual’s debts exceeded their assets, their heirs might be left with nothing. That said, the following ten suggestions serve as a way to potentially avoid such pitfalls and ensure that the deceased’s loved ones and other close relations take ownership of their holdings:

Establish Joint Tenancy For Property

The law affords individuals to establish what is known as joint tenancy for real estate holdings. For example, both spouses of a married couple live in, own, and manage a home. However, should only one spouse’s name be listed as the official owner, the property might be subject to probate upon said party’s passing. These circumstances can be avoided by establishing joint tenancy. Taking said action will establish survivorship on the part of the remaining spouse, which will automatically pass ownership onto said subject.

Authoring A Will

A decedent’s will, sometimes legally referred to as the last will and testament, is a legally-binding document that identifies the deceased’s heirs, lists their assets, and offers instructions regarding how their final affairs are to be carried out. It is important to note that property listed in the will still must be probated. However, probate courts are more likely to expedite the process in individuals who left wills provided said documents were authentic. The affairs of those who died without a will are more likely to fall under a probate court’s purview.

Establish A Trust

Certain subjects create what is known as a revocable living trust. Those who enter these arrangements place the entirety of their possessions into a trust with directives regarding how their assets are to be handled upon their passing. Additionally, the establishing individual appoints a trustee, who will carry out instructions after the decedent’s passing.

Gift Property To Others

Some persons might choose to gift certain holdings to family or other close relations prior to their death. The donor must remember, however, that once a property is gifted, they no longer hold legal control of said assets.

Establish Payable-On-Death Financial Accounts

Many financial institutions allow their customers to designate payable-on-death authorizations. This process is relatively straight forward. Upon the decedent’s passing, the individual designate as beneficiary presents the deceased’s death certificate and identification and is usually awarded the existing funds.

Vehicle Transfers

Cars and other types of transportation crafts are valuable assets. Certain states enable vehicle owners to designate transfer-on-death beneficiaries for said assets.

Real Estate Transfer-On-Death Arrangements

Several states allow home or property owners to transfer property to specific individuals upon their demise. Said action does, however, require that a transfer-on-death deed be established and entered into the public record.

Securities Transfers

Securities are holdings like stocks and bonds. Brokerage houses or other managing financial institutions offer clients to establish what are called transfer-on-death agreements. The process for settling these affairs are similar to those of establishments like banks.

Joint Ownership Of Other Assets

In most instances, a joint ownership designation can be placed on any particular asset. Therefore, the current owner can establish such designation, and the property in question will automatically become the designee’s holding after the decedent passes.

Look For Legal Provisions Governing Small Estates

Most states have simplified procedures for estates estimated to be less than a specific established amount.

Final Considerations

Probate can be a lengthy and complicated process. However, individuals might be able to spare their loved ones this responsibility and ensure said individuals receive the deceased’s assets by taking the time to execute some or all of the preceding suggestions.


An Overview of the Probate Process

Probate is a legal process of verifying the validity and authenticity of a deceased’s will if there is one, and only distributing the assets if there isn’t. It’s an infamous process because it can last for several long years, take a lot of your time and cost loads of money – that’s why many people are ready for almost anything to avoid it. Each state has its own laws as to when probate is optional and when it’s absolutely necessary. Because, unfortunately, it’s not always possible to avoid it. But don’t be afraid – the fear of the unknown is the biggest of fears so here’s an overview of the probate process to make it more familiar. It may be long, but it doesn’t have to be problematic. And if you think you may need financial help, visit

1. Authenticating the will

Most states require by law that a person who possesses the deceased’s will files it with the probate court as soon as it’s possible – normally the time varies from 30 days to three months. Then you are able to file an application to open probate as well. Some courts may require you to provide them with a death certificate too.

After that, the probate judge will confirm the validity of the will, possibly during the court hearing. All direct heirs (even if they aren’t mentioned in the will) and appointed beneficiaries need to be notified about the hearing. This is where any of these people can object to the will or the appointment of an executor.

The court will need witnesses to determine if the will is legit or not. It may be enough to provide an affidavit – a document that was supposed to be signed by the deceased and the witness at the moment of signing the will. Otherwise, there will be a need for more witnesses who will sign a sworn statement.

2. Appointing an executor (or a personal representative)

The judge appoints an executor (or a personal representative or an administrator) who will oversee the whole process and take care of the distribution of the assets. Normally the decedent would appoint his executor in the will as well. If there’s no will, it will be the closest relative, ideally a spouse or an adult child; however, they have the right to decline. Sometimes it is required for the executor to post a bond, a kind of insurance policy in case of making some significant mistake that may influence the estate or the beneficiaries.

3. Locating assets

This is the first responsibility of an executor – all of the decedent’s assets need to be found and secured. It’s not always easy, as people very often don’t know that they possess an asset or they simply don’t want to give it away, other times it turns out that the deceased hadn’t told anyone about a purchase. When it comes to real estate, the executor needs to make sure that all taxes or mortgage payments are being paid or that insurance is up to date so that the estate is not lost to some creditors during probate.

4. Calculating the date of death values

In some places, it’s the court that appoints appraisers to determine it, in others the executor can choose them. Then the report must be written on the assets and their value at the moment of decedent’s death.

5. Notifying creditors

It’s essential to identify all creditors of the decedent’s and notify them about his or her death – it may be done by publishing a notice in the local newspaper. Then they have a limited period of time to make a claim against the estate. It’s the executor who decides if the claim is valid, but the creditor can always go to court to have a probate judge verify it.

5. Paying debts and filing tax returns

After claims have been verified, the valid ones and other debts need to be paid. The executor uses the estate funds to pay them, as well as all final bills. Then they file final personal income tax returns for the year they passed away.

6. Distributing the assets

After all that, the executor files to the court for permission to distribute the assets to the beneficiaries named in the will or recognized by the probate court. In order to get permission, all paperwork needs to be submitted and the executor has to document each expense that’s been made during the process.

Probate can be long and it can get complicated, that’s why it’s essential to determine if you are capable of being an active part of the process or maybe it would be better to engage a professional.


Here is When You Need a Probate Attorney

A San Diego probate lawyer becomes a valuable guide to surviving family members and beneficiaries after losing a loved one. Add the legal and financial pressures to the situation and anxiety levels immediately start to climb. Fortunately, you can always get an inheritance advance online that helps you access your inheritance immediately instead of waiting for several months or years.

Probate lawyers offer experience in San Diego’s court systems and knowledge of California’s probate rules to get you through the entire probate process. If you have been named in a will or have a beneficiary claim, you need to talk to a probate lawyer.

State of California

San Diego, California is known throughout the world for its retirement communities. Although California does recognize an out-of-state will, it must meet California Probate Code § 6113 to be validated. A San Diego probate lawyer can help by reviewing the will drafted in other countries or states. Reasons for meeting with a California probate lawyer include:

  • Deceased lived outside of California at the time of death and owned California property.
  • Executor or personal representative currently live in another state.
  • Deceased drafted the will in another state or foreign country.

Choosing not to have a California probate lawyer review the out-of-state will could initiate an ancillary probate proceeding in addition to the primary probate process. Primary probate validation will take place in the originating state and potentially allow the state of California to accept the court’s outcome. Dual probate proceedings not only extend the probate process, but it could also increase the cost to administer multiple estate probates along with add-on court and legal fees.

Avoiding Conflict

The whole point of drafting a will is to make sure family members are emotionally and financially set to move forward. From time to time, not all descendant information is openly shared between family members or business partners. A San Diego probate lawyer provides full disclosure of the estate’s circumstances to protect the assets against contestation or lawsuit.

  • Legal guidance can prevent overpaying debts as part of the probate settlements.
  • Full disclosure among family members could prevent expensive and time-consuming lawsuits.
  • Unknown debts related to taxes, personal loans or business agreements could carry extreme penalties.

Creditors are generally prepared to fight for settlement of debts causing the delay of property transfers to the rightful heirs or beneficiaries. A lawyer is going to make sure that the probate procedures are legally in place to avoid unnecessary distress to the estate.

Real Property Probate

The majority of a person’s property must go through probate when death occurs. A probate lawyer can help determine whether the estate property can by-pass probate. Certain financial or real estate asset categories can avoid probate:

  • Joint tenancy
  • Community property
  • Held in a trust

Sometimes the heir or beneficiary has an interest in a closely held business, family business or sole proprietorship and is interested in selling. Talk to a probate lawyer about the rules on the sale of real property during the probate process. In California, the court must approve the process of sale governed by the Probate Code. A letter of testamentary with full or limited authority (court monitored) is issued, if the court approves the sale process.

  • Notice of sale must be given to beneficiaries.
  • Property is appraised before listing it for sale.
  • Beneficiaries must be notified of an accepted offer and terms.
  • Sale will close only if there are no objections from all beneficiaries.

Legal Questions and Decisions

If the probate process isn’t handled correctly and ethically, the estate could be held liable for the mistakes. Even though California does not have a statute of limitations for filing probate, the Probate Code strongly recommends filing within 30 days after death.

  • Creditors are prohibited from filing claims after one year from the date of death.
  • Tax liabilities exist on estate earned income after death.
  • California law allows interested persons to contest the will within 120 days after the will is admitted to probate.

Probate lawyers can help ease the tension and stress by explaining how California Probate Code works best for the estate. More important, a probate lawyer assures the deceased final wishes are carried out.


Hiring a probate lawyer – The crucial reasons to consider

No one wants to mull over death and make the necessary arrangements after they crossover. However, sometime sooner or later, you need to get into this discussion. It is essential to discuss the wills and the probate process to make sure that your last wishes get attended the way you want it to.

Are you thinking about how to go ahead with the probate process? Are you planning to delve into this for a decedent or yourself? In both situations, you need to get in touch with a probate lawyer. A lawyer can provide you the best guidance. To know more about this, you can get in touch with Silverstone Law FL.

There are several reasons for joining hands with a probate lawyer. A few important ones are as follows:

o The lawyer can secure an estate from a legal claim

Not many people realize that estates get several legal claims. And the probate process can draw in the ones who want to leverage from the testator’s demise. A probate lawyer ensures that the decedent’s wish gets fulfilled without any hindrances

o Drafting the will

People might think they can write their will by themselves! However, it is not an easy task. Since, it is one of the most crucial documents that you will draft in your life, declaring essential life decisions, it is crucial to get it correct. To make sure that you write the will in a risk-free way, you need to get in touch with a probate lawyer. Today, most Americans don’t have an estate plan or will, which results in troubles later. Hence, it is essential to consult an expert lawyer and draft your will. 

o Lawyers can expedite the probate process 

Legal processes sometimes are unpredictable! Hence, the probate process at times can get slightly delayed. It is all the truer when the settlement process gets managed by a person who doesn’t have apt know-how about the probate process. While this might not be feasible always, the expert probate attorneys can help to minimize the impact of problems that came in the process. 

o Lawyers can provide guidelines and answer the necessary questions

Regardless of the situation that you are in, a probate lawyer can offer the answer to all the questions a person has on the probate process. It helps to reduce the confusion and also take decisions with confidence. The probate process can, at times be very complicated. A layperson is not aware of the legal jargons. Here an expert attorney can help in understanding the legal procedures, terms, and formalities.

o The estate attorneys make sure the debts get paid correctly

There is a limited timeline within which people need to settle their debts. Also, the inheritances need to get released within the correct time as well. An expert lawyer ensures timely payment. If there are ample debts, the probate process might become slightly complicated. It is here that the lawyer can ensure that timely payments reduce the hassles.

A probate lawyer ensures that the probate process takes place correctly. They also provide all the necessary guidance and help during the probate process, so that people are free to voice their queries and make the correct decision.


Got Property in the Probate Process? Here’s a Step-By-Step Guide

The word “probate” is a legal word derived from the Latin term “probare” which essentially means “to prove.” And while most legal matters are matters proven in court, the probate process in America is one that is all about proving some number crunching. The very first probate court in America launched in 1784, to provide for a court that existed solely to determine what assets were proven and then divided after death.

Probate court can be a lengthy and confusing process. If you have property in probate right now, eliminate some confusion by getting everything you need to know about the probate process right here.

What is the Probate Process?

In a nutshell, the probate process is the legal process that proves an individual’s assets and determines asset division upon their death. In many cases, a will is in place and this is the document that will serve as the law or ordaining legal principle that makes those determinations.

Once someone dies, the executor advises descendants of their expected inheritance. But even in the simplest of situations, a legal process generally has to occur before they will get their stake of a will.

And in some situations, a will does not exist, nor does an executor. So a probate court appoints someone to direct the assets, to mitigate squabbles and battles over anything from money to the family spoon used at Christmas.

First, the will is proven in court, and then the assets and liabilities are paid or expunged. The property appraisal occurs, and debts or taxes get paid from assets.

Once that process is complete, the remaining assets are divided among descendants. The entire process can take anywhere from a few months to a few years.

Does All Property Go Through Probate?

This process of waiting until probate is over to receive inheritances is the standard one. But there are many ways to access property before probate is over.

In some cases, a cash amount may be released for the short-term while probate proceedings go on.

And not all property must go through probate in its entirety.

In the state of California for example, as much as $100,000 in property can be passed to descendants without probate.

Putting property in trust also allows you to avoid the probate process on those assets as well. A good probate lawyer can help you determine how to do this before you even prepare your will or estate plan.

If you already have property in probate, avoiding it at this point is not possible, and that’s why you need a good lawyer to help.

If the estate is not complicated, you may be able to go through a simplified probate process in your state. Or at the very least, you may be able to get some short-term funding approved for release before the probate process is complete.

Spare Your Loved Ones. Probate.

As many as 55 percent of Americans do not have an estate plan or will.

This is why the probate process can take as long as two years to complete. Register today to get access to a comprehensive list of lawyers willing to help make the probate process easier for you.


Parole hearing – How it works

The prisoner must have completed the minimum years of confinement as per law before he is eligible for release on parole.

Once the minimum sentence period (ERD) nears, a dossier (parole eligibility report) is prepared. This report includes details of the behavioral changes of an inmate in his prison stay, doctors, psychiatrist’s reports and their other observations on the prisoner.

The parole board is a three-member independent committee under the Ministry Of Justice.

If an inmate is allotted a parole hearing date, the same must be communicated to the victim or his immediate kin via mail or phone. The victim has many ways to voice his/her opinion on his/her tormentor’s parole decision. He / She can submit own opinion on parole prior to the hearing to a designated officer, who summarizes the victim’s verbatim for consideration by the parole board.

At this stage, new facts may emerge which affect the perspective of the parole board. For example, the accused may have been given punishment based on last crime he committed. Other evidence might have been disallowed in this case. However, during the parole hearing, it may become known that the accused had actually been a habitual abuser and not a one-time offender as made out from the last verdict. The attitude of the board is likely to turn negative on this new evidence.

One important aspect is that the parole members pour over many facets of the prisoner, which might not be available or admissible in the court at the verdict time. Close monitoring of the inmate, his behavior for days on end in the prison, his participation in different jail programs, his efforts for freedom in the legal way all come under lenses during the parole board examination.

How can parole be beneficial?

When a person is sent to jail, apart from the victim, innocent members of the accused family also suffer from financial and mental stress. They can be innocent toddlers, children, old-age geriatrics literally left to die after the removal of the person (accused ) from their support system. Without financial, mental support, the children of the accused themselves fall prey to sexual crimes. They may grow up to be criminals themselves. Bringing back the accused member of the family along with work may again tilt the financial and mental support back in the family of accused.

After the jail experience, the value of freedom is magnified to the prisoner. He is much less likely to commit re-crime after this lesson. With gratification for parole, he can even become a contributing member to the society.

The Parole Hearing Process

At first, the inmate interacts with one board member. The board member tries to prod into the psychology of the prisoner and not get swayed by his charm or his apparent normal happy attitude, fit enough for a release.

During the parole, the victim can attend with one support person, but he is not allowed to participate in the hearing process

Most Important – What is considered during this review

The parole hearing places the utmost stress on one question “Is it safe to release the inmate in the community, keeping in mind the grave crime that the prisoner had committed. Have really things changed for the better?”

The parole board goes over all that is documented in the parole dossier; hear what the accused and victims have to say about the parole, new evidence, past incidents, past history of the prisoner. The board listens and reads about the psychiatrist review of the inmate. Detailed, painstaking deliberation of this data helps to arrive at a decision regarding on whether the release of the inmate will raise the potential danger of society or not.

Another painful fact that is considered for parole is whether,on release, the convict will get adequate support to integrate and live in society. If no adequate plans are found to rehabilitee the inmate after his release, then his frustration may force him to re-commit crimes. In such cases where, where no suitable plan can be formulated for a decent life of prisoner after release, he may be asked to stay in jail till suitable resources can be found.

The parole members are under continuous pressure to ensure that their decision to release does not make people lose faith in the judicial process. But, they have to also consider providing the chance for a human reform which is not possible when being fried in jail.

It’s not that denial of parole once ends this facility for the prisoner. In some states, parole reports are sometimes automatically reviewed after a fixed number of years.

After Parole

After parole, the inmate will be under surveillance and report to the parole officer. If not reported within 24 hours of his release from correction home, he will be termed as an absconder.

There are various levels of supervision in parole for various types of crimes committed. For sex offenders, the maximum level of surveillance is maintained.


Parole, in reality,is the second judgment and the process is complex. It does not have a very rigid set of rules like the law court has, and rely much more on the personal perception of the parole board members. With a heavy heart, they have to sometimes deny this truncated right when they are not too sure about the future of the inmate after parole. Being ignorant about the laws can also lead to rejection even when the board member knows that the person in question deserves that chance. So, it’s a non-thankful heavy-hearted decision, which weighs heavily on the board members conscience and can swing anyway after release. However, experienced parole members can sniff out discrepancies in what the prisoner is trying to portray for his release and what he actually thinks in his depths of his criminal mind.


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