Category Archives: Laws

8 hours ago Laws

The Laws That Affect Our Everyday Life

Do you want to stay out of trouble with the law? Have you been wondering what exactly laws are and how they affect our everyday lives? Well, today we will be discussing it all here. All the rules that you follow every day from waking up from bed to going to your work and returning home or using social media afterward, we have got it all covered. First of all, let us tell you that law, as we all know, is the regulation between peoples or between people and things. Subconsciously you follow many rules every day, the one followed most are discussed here.

1. Property Law

If you are not homeless the chances are that you got out of a bed which is in a house or flat that is either rented or bought by you. You do everything to keep that roof above your head. You pay the rent on time, you don’t damage the property, you don’t annoy your neighbors or do anything that may lead to the state ceasing of property. Most of us do these things subconsciously without even thinking.

2. Consumer Law

After you are done taking a shower you get dressed according to your office policies in the clothes you bought. Have you thought that you were following consumer law while you were buying your clothes? The consumer law orders you to pay for the things you buy, otherwise, you would get in trouble with the law.

3. Traffic Laws

Would you be surprised if we tell you that you follow three necessary traffic laws every day? You would be astonished to know how these laws have become a part of your routine. After leaving home you will go to your car, fasten the seat belt, and drive according to speed limits. After reaching the office safely you will park your car according to the legal parking space. Till you reached home you followed the traffic rules that regulate the use of seat belts or helmets, prohibits the use of cell phones will driving and ensure parking in the right spot.

4. Social Media Laws

After being done with a bad day at work you try to relax and spend some time on social media. You post things that you find appropriate, you don’t troll anyone on the internet neither do you involve yourself in cyberbullying. You follow the law which regulates the use of social media and made sure what is posted is correct and posted in an environment where it isn’t inappropriate or not needed. And also the rules of cyberbullying that holds a person accountable in case of abuse or excessive trolling that may cause harm.

We told you everything you need to know to be a law-abiding citizen of the society but if you or anyone you know gets into any trouble with the law and wants a way out just contact Walthew Law Firm and you will be out in no time.

21 hours ago Laws

What are the Grounds for Contesting a Will?

The image most people hold of a contested will involves some quill pens, a detective, and/or a kingdom resting in the balance. The vast majority of wills go uncontested and the few that do are not much like King Lear or an Agatha Christie book.

Most of the time when someone is contesting a will it is to challenge the legality, not the execution of property. After all, a will isn’t just a document that divvies up an estate it is the wishes of a living being.

The Court and its agents have a responsibility to ensure that this is done properly. Key to this duty is ensuring that the will state the actual intentions of the creator.

Keep reading to understand more about the grounds for contesting and the reasons why one would do so.

Categories for Contesting a Will

The grounds for contesting a will fall into two categories: issues with the testator and issues with the document. In both, questions of clarity, intention, and the law are considered when determining if a will gets voided, kept, or kept in part.

Testator Issues

The testator is the person who makes the will. Often a will is considered to have a single testator even if it includes language mentioning the wishes of others.

It is not uncommon for a married pair of spouses to reference each other in wills or to have large components of wills identical to each other.

Since the will is a document speaking for the testator it must be clear that both it and the testator are sound.

The following apply to establishing the validity of the testator.


You may have heard the phrase “being of sound mind and body” in relation to legal documents. That applies most to wills. A testator needs to prove that they are well and that they are not affected by a problem with mental or physical health when declaring a will.

A person suffering from dementia or any other cognitive disorder can establish a will but the circumstances of the will itself have to be verified.

As long as the person was sound when dictating or writing their wishes, the will is valid. Still, the existence of any mental issues opens the will for review.

Undue Influence

When the testator forms a will they need to do so of their own intention. A will created under duress from an outside person or force is asking for a challenge.

Undue influence can come from a caretaker or influencer that holds some power over the testator. It can also come from exigent circumstances or fear of consequences.

A testator afraid that they will lose their property in a civil or criminal court can’t hand their possessions over to someone else. This example also falls under the next condition.

Fraudulent Circumstances

This covers circumstances that are obviously fraudulent, such as the example above, and ones that can be contested.

A person making a threat or false claim to a testator, which influences them to change or insert a bequest into a will leaves it open to contest. The testator doesn’t need to know that the statements are false for the contest to happen.

Language that demands an heir takes an action based on false premsise also falls under this. For example, an heir must admit to being the parent of a child to receive property when the heir is found not to be the biological parent.

Lack of Witnesses

A will must be signed by the testator and witnessed by at least two individuals not referenced in the will itself.

Failure to provide proof of the witnesses and the signature leaves a will open to contest.

This is a formality of the will’s legality and often a defense used against the previous conditions.

Lack of Drafts

A will may also be contested if it is the only one and no drafts or former documents exist. This is shakey in some circumstances but has some bearing.

With life expectancy still above 78, it makes sense that many people start writing a will around 47. The thirty-year interval in between leaves a lot of room for life to happen and for circumstances to change.

A lack of updates to a will through codicil or a new will altogether leaves grounds to contest that the will no longer represents the wishes of the testator.

Legality Issues

If there are no grounds found within the category of testator it’s possible to find legal gaps in the will.


Contesting the identity and the standing of the witnesses is common. The testator needs to sign the will in the presence of witnesses. The witnesses don’t have to have an infinite regress of witnesses.

If it can be shown that a witness was not present during the signing but added a name later, it would create a fraud opening.


A will that is not executed properly is considered unsound. To execute a will, the document needs to have a chain of custody that isn’t in contest. Typically this involves registering the will or keeping multiple copies in different places so that they can be compared.

Alterations and Additions

Updating a will doesn’t require creating a totally new will. To do so, amendments in the form of codicil get added. Each codicil is signed and witnessed like the will itself.

When the chain of custody on a codicil is suspect, such as a page being lost or not included in one copy over another, the will is open to contest.

Look for Help

No matter what side you might find yourself on, contesting a will isn’t simple. There are many subtle issues to deal with between the testator’s intent and the parameters of the law.

You want to find a lawyer that knows probate and estate law to approach the best outcome for you and your loved ones.

The best way to do that is to cast a wide net. Using our directory service you can search for attorneys in categories and compare them to find what you need.

2 days ago Laws

What is The Importance of Employment Law?

Employment laws were enacted (and continually revamped) to ensure that employers are protected. There was once a time in the U.S. that employers could do or say anything to an employee without the fear of legal consequences. Though the country still has a lot of work to do make the workplace safe and fair to people of all colors, religions, and genders, in its current form it offers a wide range of protections on the local, state, and federal levels. If an employer violates employment laws, they may be subjected to heavy fines, thorough investigations, and a bad reputation. Current employment laws offer employees protections against discrimination, harassment, unlawful firing, unsafe workplace conditions, child labor, etc. Since employment law is a complex and robust discipline, it is recommended that you connect with a proven attorney in the event that your rights have been violated by your employer. According to Attorney Keith Stern, employment lawyers with knowledge of the subject, experience, and adequate resources help to level the playing field and empowers you to stand up for your rights. Learn more about the importance of employment law below.

What Employment Laws Provide Employees

In general, U.S. employment laws offer employees protections that they would otherwise not have. In addition to laws that prohibit discrimination, there are many other regulations that protect employees from negligent actions by their employers. Current laws provide employees with the following types of protections:

  • Discrimination and harassment
  • Workplace safety and health
  • Worker’s compensation
  • Child labor laws
  • Minimum wage laws
  • Retaliation

If you have been unlawfully treated by your employer, it is imperative that you stand up for your rights. Not only for yourself but to potentially protect future employees that may be subjected to the same treatment if the employer’s actions are left unchecked.

What Employment Laws Don’t Guarantee

While employment laws offer a barrage of protections for employers, they are not meant to protect workers from all problems that they may face in the workplace. For instance, harassment is illegal, but “petty teasing” is not. Furthermore, employment laws cannot save you from being fired (in most cases). Many states offer “at-will” employment. This means that an employer has the right to terminate your employment for any reason that they choose as long as it is not unlawful. Lastly, current employment laws guarantee a minimum wage for employees, but not a working wage. If you are in doubt about whether or not your employer has infringed on your employment rights, it is recommended that you consult with an employment lawyer as soon as possible.

When You May Need an Employment Law Attorney

Employment attorneys are not only helpful when you have been discriminated against and/or harassed in the workplace. They can also be an asset when you are signing an employment contract, you would like to take your FMLA leave but are pressured to not do so, your employer has misclassified your position (so they don’t have to pay you fair wages), worker’s compensation claims, you’re not being appropriately paid for overtime, etc. In most cases, if you seek legal actions against your employer, they will hire an employment attorney to defend them. If you are pursuing legal action against them on your own, you may face an uphill battle. Consulting with an employment attorney will give you clarity about whether or not you have a strong case against your employer and what steps you should take to increase the likelihood of a successful outcome.

2 days ago Laws

How Hiring A Private Detective Is Going to Help Your Lawyer Win Your Case?

It doesn’t matter you are filing a lawsuit against someone, or if you are facing a lawsuit yourself, it’s never easy. There are a lot of legal details that are simply beyond your understandings and for this reason, you try to hire the best attorney that you can. But have you ever wondered that how your lawyer gets helps when they need it?

There are many instances, especially in complicated cases, when your lawyer can’t make any progress without external help. So, they go with the option of hiring a private detective. Some lawyers hire the detectives on their own but most of the time they ask you to do so. If you find yourself in a similar situation and you have doubts in your mind about getting a detective, then you need to know it will help your lawyer to win the case for you.

Here’s how it is going to help your lawyer to win the case for you:

Easily Predict the Next Move of Your Opponent

If you can predict the next move of your opponent, that’s a half win. It helps your lawyer to get prepared for whatever is going to come from your opponent. Knowing what your opponent is going to put up next is something you need if you want to win the case. The good news is that you can hire a detective online without any hassle. For example, Detektiv is an online service that can help you in this regard.

Trace Potential Witnesses

There is near to zero chance for you to win a case if you don’t have any rock-solid witnesses. It’s a lot of effort to find the witnesses, and your lawyers are occupied in sorting the other complexities of your case. A private detective will re-visit everything and bring the potential witnesses in the light. It can prove super beneficial for your suit.

Track the Untraceable

While different cases have different scenarios, there is one thing common in almost every law suit-some missing links. There are always some details that are missing out like a piece from the jigsaw puzzle. A private detective is a professional who is trained to find that missing piece for your case. It will help your lawyer to present your case in a more precise and impressive manner.

Find Some Extra Cards Up Someone’s Sleeves

it is a fact that a settlement is convenient than litigation. A PI is a trained professional who knows where to dig to get what you are looking for. So, they bring up some extra cards that prove very critical in making your case rock-solid.

It doesn’t matter what kind of case you are working; you need as much leverage as you can get if you want to win the case or if you want to settle faster.

Helps with Testimonies and Depositions

A private investigator will write a detailed report of his findings. This report can play a very crucial role in helping your attorney to win the case. This report mostly contains information that your opponent tries to hide both from the court and his attorney. So, it can be easily used as leverage and to make the stance of your opponent weak in front of the jury and the court.

The mutual work relation of your attorney and the PI is ultimately going to make your case a strong opne. So, trust your lawyer when they ask you to hire a private investigator for them because at the end of the day, it is going to benefit you and only you.

6 days ago Laws

Are You Legally Answerable If Someone Falls On Your Property Premises?

Whether you own or rent commercial property, or for a matter of fact, if you’re simply a homeowner, you have a legal responsibility for conditions on your property. If someone slips on something and hurts themselves, you might be liable. They can try to sue you for the expenses they’ve suffered because of the accident.

Just because someone can sue you, however, doesn’t mean that you’re actually at fault. Premises liability law is complicated and your actual responsibility will vary depending on the specific circumstances.

Determining Liability

In order for you to be held liable in a personal injury case, the first step is for the other party to establish that you bore a legal responsibility for their safety. This means they have to be a legitimate guest on that property in a clear relationship with you, the owner of the property.

They can be a tenant of yours, a customer, or simply an invited guest. All of those qualify as relationships that establish liability. What this requirement does, among other things, is protect you from having to keep your property safe for trespassers and anyone who isn’t supposed to be there.

Some states like South Carolina have also created other legal provisions to protect property owners who allow their property to be used for free for recreational purposes. If you give individuals access to your property without asking for or expecting any financial compensation, you may have some protection from litigation.

What Counts as Negligence?

The key disputed part of any premises liability suit is going to be about the accident itself and the conditions that caused it. The injured person has to show that the accident was not their fault and occurred because of some way that you did not keep your property safe.

If the victim fell on a wet floor or was hurt when something broke, they have to show not only that they couldn’t have avoided the accident, but that you could have prevented the accident yourself but failed to do so. That’s the legal standard known as negligence. To be negligent, you have to fail to meet a reasonable expectation of responsibility.

If something new unexpectedly breaks and there was no way you could have foreseen the problem, that shouldn’t count as negligence. However, if a floor was wet and unmarked, and you were aware of the problem but failed to react, then you will likely be judged to be negligent and at fault.

Find an Attorney

If you’re worried about opening yourself up to legal liability or you’re being sued for an accident that happened on your property, the first thing you need to do is seek out professional help. No one will know better than lawyers working in premises liability what your risks are and how to respond to any situations that arise.

Find an attorney you can trust to stand by your side and help you avoid the massive expense and trouble of a personal injury lawsuit.

6 days ago Laws , Education

What You Need To Know About Suing A Lawyer

Lawyers are there to help us deal with some of the most difficult times of our lives.  They help us buy houses, plan our estates and set up businesses while resolving disputes with others from employers to neighbors.  All of these processes will generally go without a hitch, but you might be wondering what you can do if there is a problem. It is possible for you to sue your lawyer?  The simple answer is yes, but you might have a lot of questions relating to suing a solicitor.

What Can You Do When You Receive Poor Service?

Poor service is a very vague issue and it can relate to anything from poor communication to problems with the fees you are charged by the lawyer.  These problems can be very frustrating, but they might not be negligent on their own. If you have poor service from your lawyer, the internal complaints procedure that the law firm has should be your first stop.  If this does not help resolve the issue, you can try the Legal Ombudsman who will look into the case and resolve it.

Can You Sue A Lawyer?

You can, but you will need to show that you have suffered more than bad service from the lawyer.  You will have to prove that the lawyer was professionally negligent. The lawyer will need to have done something or failed to do something that has caused losses for you.

There are many examples of solicitor negligence including their failure to carry out a search when you purchase a home.  Missed court deadlines which result in your inability to pursue a claim is another example. Other forms of negligence will be providing incorrect legal advice and the poor drafting of a will that leaves you unable to claim your inheritance.

How Much Can You Sue For?

If you are making a professional negligence claim against a lawyer, you can only claim for damages.  This will be the amount that you have lost as a result of the negligence. The damages should place you back in the position you were in before the lawyer acted negligently.

There are a few ways that damages can be measured in these cases.  A good example of this will be a conveyancing negligence case. In this type of case, you will only be able to claim the difference in price that you paid for the house and the price you should have paid if there was no error.  In some rarer cases, you could sue for the entire value of the property. You might also be able to claim the amount you had to pay another lawyer to fix the issue. These are additional costs that you would not have faced if there was no negligence.

Is There A Time Limit For These Claims?

There is a time limit for all professional negligence claims.  This is generally 6 years from the date of the negligence. If you only find out about the negligence at a later date, you will have 3 years from the date of discovery of the negligence or the end of the 6 years depending on the one that is later.  There are some rare cases where a long-stop limit is applied and this will be 15 years from the date of the negligence.

What You Need To Do To Sue Your Lawyer

If you believe that your lawyer has been negligent, you will need to act as soon as possible.  It is recommended that you contact a different law firm and set up an initial consultation. Lawyers who specialize in professional negligence cases will be able to determine the validity of your claim.  If your lawyer has been negligent, they will be able to help you resolve the issue and pursue your case.

Not all professional negligence cases will need to go to court.  In most cases, the issues can be resolved with mediation and negotiation.  Before you rush to court, you should send a letter of claim to the lawyer and set out the case against them.  Your previous lawyer will have a chance to respond and set out their defence. This will generally start the process of discussing a settlement and most cases end here before getting close to court.

If You Lawyer Insured?

All lawyers need to have some professional indemnity insurance.  Their insurance company is likely to pay your damages if your claim is successful.

3 weeks ago Laws

7 Tips: Choose Translation Company to Translate Legal Document

John is a workaholic, always working, giving his best to the organization that helped boost his career. An outstanding employee, his relation with his juniors and other colleagues keeps him motivated enough to do the best.

Little did he know that his workaholicism will become his downfall. Instead of hiring a translation agency as he was asked for, he thought he is good enough in Spanish, so why not translate the legal document on his own? Well, John, you don’t have to be a one-do-it-all-kind-of-a-man.

He got fired the next day. Reason? In his ambition to translate the document, he misinterpreted some crucial sentences and emailed the translated document to the clients. The client’s reaction was contrary to his expectations and they withdrew the merger.

Well, some lessons are learned a hard way.

Language is no child’s game in the legal world

Language translation is a vital phase every business has to go through. It is unavoidable. Despite his maintained work record, John was not a professional translator, let alone an experienced one. Understanding a language and to be able to translate a language are two different ends. To accommodate businesses, human translators are in high demand these days, because business just cannot stick to the home country.

With the help of the right legal translation service, a company can enter different sectors with the translated legal information in their pockets. Although English has rooted itself as the core language for most businesses around the world, some traditional insight still sticks to their native language and some keep a record in a native and foreign language as well.

Best way to opt for a translation company

At best, English is still the second language in the business world, despite of its international stature. To extract legal information, businesses usually do not rely on automated translation due to its varying quality, instead, they choose to hire professional translation companies to fulfill the requirements. But the main question is; how to be sure which legal translation service is the right one for you?

Who said doing business is easy? It’s not, now let’s keep an eye on some of the tips to remember when looking for the right translation agency;

Hiring experts

Each translation agency has its goodwill preceding the quality work. Sometimes, your requirements are a tad bit different concerning legal terms. So you need to be sure whether the recommended translation agency is the right choice for your business or not.

Make a list of top translation agencies with good ratings and make a secondary list as well (it’s always good to have a plan B). Focus on the legal expertise and how accurate translation service do they offer. Whether they will be able to convert the legal document in the targeted language or not. With no room for error, legal documents if translated wrongly can put you in a suspicious position (nobody wants to be a John now do they?).

Experience matters

Have a face to face meet up and if not possible, do ask for how a translator is hired in the respective translation agency. The range of skills, accuracy, turnaround time, etc. all of that matters so be conclusive with the translation agency. A good translation agency should be able to recruit translators who can fully interpret the meaning and can re-write the legal context in the target language.

One thing to remember is each culture and language notions for a separate meaning. Go for the translation service that keenly translates the legal document and has experience in maintaining the original context in another language so that the legal terms are not disturbed.

Improvise the linguistic structure

Documents written in English if translated may not always have the same length of words or even the sentences. A context written in active voice may have to be written in passive voice in other language.

But in legal documents, passive voice is adamantly used and sentence structure is often complex. An expert legal translation services will capture these complexities while translating the legal documents. Mostly, active voice is used by translators, so do ask for a sample translation (it’s free for a specific word count) and make sure that the translation is accurate and according to the required context of the target language.

No pain no gain (time limitation)

Time is always of relevance. Sometimes you are in urgent need to translate a document. Some translation companies do claim to provide the fastest turnaround time but they fail to meet high expectations.

The ability to meet strict deadlines is a major factor to pinpoint when selecting a translation agency. The purpose and original meaning should be the foremost concern despite the restricted timeline. You can also opt for the test and trial method when before choosing the translation. The readability factor is a prime reason to keep in focus so that the reader can easily understand the meaning.

Stay calm with legal precedents

In the business world, a minute change in law or policy can overturn a business. Law is not constant, it keeps changing with time and new demands. Therefore, the translation agency must adapt its translation services accordingly. For instance, common law is practiced differently in Wales and England. A new legal case can be the reason behind a new rule, called as precedent.

It’s like a sample in keeping. These are used for interpreting a certain situation and the context of the case is later on used for similar cases, hence bringing forth a new law. For this purpose, choose a translation agency that is clear about the basic legal requirement of the country with a deep understanding of the law and how to improvise the translation specifications accordingly.

Syntax is critical

Punctuation and grammatical errors in translation are just the worst-case scenarios you can ever face. A missed comma can result in disastrous consequences for your business.

For instance; “I want to eat dad” or “I want to eat, dad”, both represent a different context with the placement of comma. Obviously, you do not want to eat your dad!

The point remains intact, similar ramifications can mean the death of your business if your translation agency is not confident in their translation services. Try to get a review of their previous project, and see if they got the context in the right way.

What to expect in the end?

Despite all the tips mentioned above, confidentiality in legal terms cannot be compromised at all. A professional legal translation agency will not cater to disclosing any important information therefore, always choose the one that covers all the discussed tips so you know you are working with the right translation company.

Let the search hunt begin!


How Trump’s tax law hurts personal injury lawsuit settlements?

If ever you need an example to explain the idiom ‘add insult to injury,’ then President Trump’s new tax plan, The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, signed into law on December 22, 2017 takes the cake. The new tax plan hits at the very core of compensation for personal injuries from car accidents, slip and falls, medical malpractice, and products liability cases by increasing the tax burden of the compensated people.

Since we are talking about examples let’s take an example to illustrate how insulting it is to an injured person who secures compensation for personal injuries suffered from various types of accidents.

If John Doe meets with an accident and gets injured he will be eligible for compensation based on a court verdict or settlement arrived at out of court. For instance, if John Doe secured a compensation of $2m ($0.5m as compensatory damages, $1.5m as punitive damages and legal fees of $0.6m) without any delay let’s see how this compensation is treated prior to and post Trump’s new tax plan.

Prior to the new tax plan John Doe’s compensatory damages would be tax-free but punitive damages would be taxed. Similarly, if there was a gap between the time of the order and payment of compensation, the notional interest earned thereon would be taxable. Further, any legal fee paid was deductible from gross compensation before arriving at the taxable compensation.

Thus, the amount subjected to taxation would be $0.9m ($1.5m – $0.6m), which is basically the punitive damages less legal fee, the compensatory damages being exempted from tax.

Now, with the new tax pan, John Doe would be subjected to the following changes.

Firstly, the compensatory damages would now require qualification in the form of bifurcation of damages into physical injuries such as broken bones, paralysis, and other permanent physical disabilities and non-physical injuries which could be emotional in nature such as mental suffering, mental disturbance, mental anguish and mental distress. Based on this bifurcation, only the compensatory damages related to physical injuries would be non-taxable and the non-physical injuries would be taxable.

Secondly, the legal fee paid would not be allowed as a deduction from gross compensation. This means that the compensated person would pay tax on the gross compensation.

The punitive damages and interest income would continue to be taxed as before.

Let’s see how these changes affect John Doe.

If in our example above, John Doe’s compensatory damages are bifurcated into physical injuries and non-physical injuries as $0.25m each, then as per the new plan the $1.75m compensation would be taxed as against $0.9m in the old plan. Besides the ignominy of paying higher taxes John Doe would have to justify classifying his injuries as physical injuries to enjoy non-taxable compensation.

Thus, John Doe will now bear higher tax burden, which is nothing but adding insult to injury.

Trump’s new tax plan is definitely a dampener for injured people as far as compensation is concerned quantitatively because of the higher tax burden. But more importantly, it is qualitatively burdensome because of implementation woes in regard to proving physical injuries and justifying payment of taxes even on the legal fees.

As the implementation of the new tax plan is fraught with danger of misunderstanding of the provisions of the Act, injured people should consult with a professional such as a Rockford car accident lawyer to iron out differences and hasten the process of receiving compensation by classifying injuries correctly.

3 weeks ago Laws

Is Weed Vaping Legal?

In the wake of the recent scandal around vaping because of reported lung injuries and corresponding several deaths, a weed industry is spooked. This is especially true when it comes to the official claims of the Center for Disease Control, arguing that many of the injury cases, as well as deaths, are linked to the THC vaping. The conclusions of the CDC make many people concerned about the legal status of marijuana, even in the states where it is legalized, decriminalized, or both, and its use via weed vapes as such.

Clearing up whether vaping cannabis is against the law requires understanding what CDC is talking about in their report and the FDA’s reaction. It is worth mentioning that e-cigarettes, including flavored vaporizers and best vape pen for weed, have become extremely popular among youth. Although all states have an age restriction for individuals who are allowed accessing such products, HHS Secretary Alex Azar said that the US “has started using e-cigarettes among the youth epidemically” In response to 55 confirmed deaths across the nation, the FDA has presented its enforcement policy to regulate unauthorized fruit- and mint-flavored e-cigarette products. However, the document does not mention dry herb vape pens or THC-containing products.

The State Regulation On Vaping Marijuana Products

From the first glance, vaping weed remains legal (in the states where cannabis is legalized). In fact, many states’ authorities reacted to the situation and took emergency actions. The states listed below restrict access to vaping products.


On October 28, 2019, the state banned the use of e-cigarettes and marijuana vaping products for 90 days. With the support of the state’s Cannabis Control Commission, dry herb vaporizer pens and other products for medical use of marijuana flowers were excluded from the ban. Later in December 2019, new regulations were approved, but it remained the same in relation to weed vaping products.


The state does not ban any marijuana-containing vaping products for use. However, the Michigan Marijuana Regulatory Agency controls manufacturers, making it obligatory for them to label inactive ingredients in cannabis vaping products. All ingredients which are not approved by the FDA for inhalation are prohibited. Moreover, the sellers of marijuana vaping products, such as weed pens, are obliged to follow certain rules.


Although a judge blocked emergency rules for about two months, it finally went into effect on December 17, 2019, for 120 days. The paper prohibits the sale of e-cigs, both flavored non-nicotine and flavored nicotine. The ban also is applied to THC and CBD containing vaping products.


Despite the fact that the state’s Health Authority and Liquor Control Commission issued and filed their rules on banning vaping products with flavors, both tobacco-based and marijuana-based, the Oregon Court of Appeals granted a stay of these rules.


The emergency rules of the Utah state included a ban of the flavored vaping products, as well as obligatory warning for all retailers to notify users about unregulated THC vaping substances. For now, only the second part is in effect.


The Washington governors have filed the emergency rules which prohibit flavored THC vapor products, among other vaping products. They came in effect on October 10, 2019. A ban also includes consumer warnings and ingredient disclosure. Later on, vitamin E acetate was prohibited in vaping products.

The above-mentioned states and several others have an active ban on flavored vaping products, including marijuana-containing ones. While some of them have their prohibitions temporarily restrained, all face pending legal challenges.

The Tribal Actions

Not only the states as such but also certain tribal territories initiated the prohibition of electronic smoking devices. The Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel was among the first tribes which announced a ban of all cannabis-containing vaping products. From October 11, 2019, all dry herb weed vaporizers, as well as other vaping products are banned on the Puyallup Tribe lands, too. A permanent restriction on all vaping products went into action on the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, Lac Courte Oreilles, Oglala Sioux, and Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa tribal territories. Such tribes as the Muckleshoot and Saint Regis Mohawk enacted a permanent ban only of flavored e-cigarettes.

3 weeks ago Laws

7 Tips for Improving Your Legal Writing Skills

Why should a lawyer develop strong writing skills? First of all, a poorly written text creates legal risks. If someone finds a problem in the text, it may spark a multi-million dollar dispute. What’s more, 59% of people say that they could not understand the legal documents at all when 28% of people struggle even to read the poorly written legal text to its end. Here are the top legal writing tips for your consideration.

We thought it would be helpful to provide an action-oriented method so law students could easily create a high-quality text. Check out great advice on crafting the perfect briefs!

1. Start a Paragraph in a Form of Responses to Questions That You Expect to Get

Why do we lawyers locate so much time learning “legal writing”? About 90% of legal writing is just writing. This tip starts with citation, “Not all legal writing needs to be excellent. Sometimes, it just needs to answer a question.” Answering the questions when you start opening each paragraph is the way to clarify the most crucial points in your summary.

Try to solve the current problem or requests, for example: “Where to complain about housing and communal services”, “How to register an individual entrepreneur in 2020”, “How not to fall under the reduction”, “How to avoid the penalty for late submission of a zero declaration”, etc.

2. Complete a Fact Part by Providing Empathetic Closing Thoughts

When improving your writing skills, lawyers recommend practicing not a formal way of closing statements. As the conclusion is the most essential section of a story, it is advisable to describe the details by showing morality, values, and praiseworthy qualities. Lots of lawyers/advocates start with such insights as desire, justice, integrity (sure, it all depends on the type of documents or case).

You can also use plain words while writing answers to hypothetical questions and finish the fact part by strengthening your case with a moral context in a persuasive sound of the brief. Of course, the pragmatic legal approach in writing is ignored sometimes. It is important not to forget to address an analysis of a legal issue from the point of view of its practical solution and presentation in the interests of a certain individual or legal entity.

3. Keep Learning & Reading Useful Information

Read a lot. Reading enriches the vocabulary, in addition, fills your speech with certain language structures that are rarely used in oral communication. You can also try to retell the simplest text writing. After reading an article, you can summarize the essence of what you’ve read.

What’s more, you can record daily interesting events, thoughts and describe news or even start blogging about the law. You can also check the website, read useful sources, find reliable broadcasting, listen to podcasts or communicate with other experts in the field. Write about what you know and what you can share with the world. Our legal writing tip and message here is to open your boundaries, start writing and learning new information.

4. Write with an Easy & Straightforward Sound

The target audience of lawyers is usually people who did not get a special legal education. Probably, these potential clients are already tired of reading complex law texts or getting a clear understanding of the official letters. Even some lawyers hardly manage to get the meaning out of a “completely ugly text” of some civil procedures briefs.

Potential clients of lawyers are usually entrepreneurs, managers, pensioners, housewives and people who want a clear piece of a document without complicated things. So how to simplify a legal text for them:

  • By providing simple and straightforward sentences — it does not mean primitive, you just have to write respectfully and think about the benefits for the reader.
  • By trying to remove lawyer jargon, lawyer phrases, and legal cliches that make your writing hard to comprehend even from contracts where an official business style is considered mandatory.

5. Show Expertise

Making high-quality informational content is difficult, however, try to show expertise. This way, you can build your trust as a professional. If your text does not explain things clearly, it is absolutely useless.

It is also necessary to show the authenticity of the legal text. You need to make sure that there is evidence or witnesses to all the facts stated in the text and that they can be presented officially. It is worth remembering that you have to provide statements of facts. Information about privacy can be published, protecting the public interest but its presence will have to be proved.

Final Thoughts

First of all, you need to make the legal text easy for your clients and readers to understand and quickly show the information they need. Divide your text into parts as busy individuals usually scan the text, therefore, headings will help them read faster and jump to the right parts easier. When creating a brief, you have to focus on delivering information and facts in a way that helps to minimize the time and energy clients spend on understanding the piece.

Indeed, students learn theory, an analytical approach to the study of the legal issues which are valuable aspects. However, as a rule, it is important to know how to apply the acquired deep theoretical knowledge to a specific legal writing situation.


Jeff Blaylock is a blogger and legal writer expert. He thinks the ability to provide informative and clear information is a state of art. So it’s quite important to be a professional in the field, especially in the present busy world. It doesn’t matter whether you are doing research, legal writing, an essay or just creating an email — the quality of the text will determine your success. Students can also use various writing tools and services that can help overcome some obstacles.


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